Accordion fold: Bindery term, two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion.
Against the grain: At right angles to direction of paper grain.
Back up: Printing the second side of a sheet already printed on one side.
Bind: To fasten sheets or signatures with wire, thread, glue. or by other means.
Bindery: The finishing department of a print shop or firm specializing in finishing printed products.
Bleed: Printing that goes to the edge of the sheet after trimming.
Blind embossing: An image pressed into a sheet without ink or foil.
Bond paper: Strong durable paper grade used for letterheads and business forms.
Brightness: The brilliance or reflectance of paper.
Caliper: Paper thickness in thousandths of an inch.
Coated paper: A clay coated printing paper with a smooth finish.
Color bar: A quality control term regarding the spots of ink color on the tail of a sheet.
Color separations: The process of preparing artwork, photographs, transparencies, or computer generated art for printing by separating into the four primary printing colors.
Contrast: The tonal change in color from light to dark.
Copy: All furnished material or disc used in the production of a printed product.
Cover paper: A heavy printing paper used to cover books, make presentation folders, etc.
Crop: To cut off parts of a picture or image.
Crop marks: Printed lines showing where to trim a printed sheet.
Cyan: One of four standard process colors. The blue color.
Die: Metal rule or imaged block used to cut or place an image on paper in the finishing process.
Die cutting: Cutting images in or out of paper.
Dot: An element of halftones. Using a loupe you will see that printed pictures are made many dots.
Dot gain or spread: A term used to explain the difference in size between the dot on film v paper.
Drop-out: Portions of artwork that do not print.
Dummy: A rough layout of a printed piece showing position and finished size.
Duotone: A halftone picture made up of two printed colors.
Emboss: Pressing an image into paper so that it will create a raised relief.
Eurobind: A patented method of binding perfect bound books so they will open and lay flatter.
Facsimile transmission: The process of converting graphic images into electronic signals.
Flood: To cover a printed page with ink, varnish, or plastic coating.
Flop: The reverse side of an image.
Foil: A metallic or pigmented coating on plastic sheets or rolls used in foil stamping and foil embossing.
Foil emboss: Foil stamping and embossing a image on paper with a die.
Foil stamping: Using a die to place a metallic or pigmented image on paper.
4-color-process: The process of combining four basic colors to create a printed color picture or colors composed from the basic four colors.
French fold: Two folds at right angles to each other.
Gang Run: Getting the most out of a printing press by using the maximum sheet size to print multiple images or jobs on the same sheet. A way to save money.
Generation: Stages of reproduction from original copy. A first generation reproduction yields the best quality.
Gloss: A shiny look reflecting light.
Grain: The direction in which the paper fiber lie.
Hairline: A very thin line or gap about the width of a hair or 1/100 inch.
Halftone: Converting a continuous tone to dots for printing.
Hard copy: The output of a computer printer, or typed text sent for typesetting.
Highlight: The lightest areas in a picture or halftone.
Image area: Portion of paper on which ink can appear.
Imposition: Positioning printed pages so they will fold in the proper order.
Impression: Putting an image on paper.
Imprint: Adding copy to a previously printed page.
Knock out: To mask out an image.
Laminate: To cover with film, to bond or glue one surface to another.
Lines per inch: The number of rows of dots per inch in a halftone.
Loupe: A magnifying glass used to review a printed image, plate and position film.
Magenta: Process red, one of the basic colors in process color.
Makeready: All the activities required to prepare a press for printing.
Matchprint: Trade name for 3M integral color proof. Matte finish: Dull paper or ink finish.
Micrometer: Instrument used to measure the thickness of different papers.
Middle tones: The tones in a photograph that are approximately half as dark as the shadow area.
Moire: Occurs when screen angles are wrong causing odd patterns in photographs.
Negative: The image on film that makes the white areas of originals black and black areas white.
Offset paper: Term for uncoated book paper.
Opacity: The amount of show-through on a printed sheet. The more opacity or the thicker the paper the less show-through. (The thicker/heavier the paper the higher the cost.)
Overrun or overs: Copies printed in excess of the specified quantity. (Printing trade terms allow for + - 10 % to represent a completed order.)
Page count: Total number of pages in a book including blanks.
Perfect bind: A type of binding that glues the edge of sheets to a cover like a telephone book, Microsoft software manual, or Country Living Magazine.
Perfecting press: A sheet fed printing press that prints both sides of a sheet in one pass.
Pica: Unit of measure in typesetting. One pica = 1/6 inch.
PMS: The abbreviated name of the Pantone Color Matching System.
PMT: Abbreviated name for photomechanical transfer. Often used to make position prints.
Point: For paper, a unit of thickness equaling 1/1000 inch. for typesetting, a unit of height equaling 1/72 inch.
PostScript: The computer language most recognized by printing devices.
Process blue: The blue or cyan color in process printing.
Process colors: Cyan (blue), magenta (process red), yellow (process yellow), black (process black).
Ragged left: Type that is justified to the right margin and the line lengths vary on the left.
Ragged right: Type that is justified to the left margin and the line lengths vary on the right.
Ream: Five hundred sheets of paper.
Register: To position print in the proper position in relation to the edge of the sheet and to other printing on the same sheet.
Register marks: Cross-hair lines or marks on film, plates, and paper that guide strippers, platemakers, pressmen, and bindery personnel in processing a print order from start to finish.
Reverse: The opposite of what you see. Printing the background of an image. For example; type your name on a piece of paper. The reverse of this would be a black piece of paper with a white name.
Saddle stitch: Binding a booklet or magazine with staples in the seam where it folds.
Score: A crease put on paper to help it fold better.
Shadow: The darkest areas of a photograph.
Show-through: Printing on one side of a sheet that can be seen on the other side of the sheet.
Side stitch: Binding by stapling along one side of a sheet.
Specifications: A precise description of a print order.
Spine: The binding edge of a book or publication.
Spot varnish: Varnish used to hilight a specific part of the printed sheet.
Stamping: Term for foil stamping.
Stock: The material to be printed.
Substrate: Any surface on which printing is done.
Text paper: Grades of uncoated paper with textured surfaces.
Tints: A shade of a single color or combined colors.
Transparency: A positive photographic slide on film allowing light to pass through.
Transparent ink: A printing ink that does not conceal the color under it.
Trapping: The ability to print one ink over the other.
Trim marks: Similar to crop or register marks. These marks show where to trim the printed sheet.
Trim size: The final size of one printed image after the last trim is made.
Under-run: Production of fewer copies than ordered. See over run.
Up: Printing two or three up means printing multiple copies of the same image on the same sheet.
UV coating: Liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. Environmentally friendly.
Varnish: A clear liquid applied to printed surfaces for looks and protection. (UV coating looks better.)
Watermark: A distinctive design created in paper at the time of manufacture that can be easily seen by holding the paper up to a light.
With the grain: Folding or feeding paper into the press or folder parallel to the grain of the paper.